Estimated H-index: 7. Abstract It has been reported that flood events in Namibia and Zambia will increase, due to the variability and changes in the climate, thus increasing the number of people that are exposed to flooding disasters. This exposure will negatively impact the livelihoods of rural households if no interventions are implemented to strengthen the coping and adaptive capacity of the affected local population against flooding.
The purpose of this case study was to determine the adaptation strategies that a Spatial associations between household and community livelihood capitals in rural territories: an example from the Mahanadi Delta, India. Published on Feb 1, in Applied Geography 3.
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Hutton 11 Estimated H-index: Abstract Despite the increasing interest of the Sustainable Livelihood Framework in the field of international development and in academia and the recent call for the use of mixed-methods approach, there has been little analysis that brings together qualitative and quantitative methods over a large geographical extent. Based on findings from participatory rural appraisals during which participants identified the key assets needed to achieve their livelihoods, this paper argues that common-pool r Published on Feb 1, in Sustainable Cities and Society 4.
Klemens Laschefski 3 Estimated H-index: 3. Abstract The search for sustainability, particularly in an urban context, is in full swing. Based on a review of mainstream environmental management and the critical environmental justice perspective, this analysis proposes that concepts of space, territory, and livelihood which are operating at the interface of the social and physical world, offer possibilities to understand urban and rural metabolisms in a global context.
The second part of the paper focuses on the main obstacles to achieve su Livelihood exposure to climatic stresses in the north-eastern floodplains of Bangladesh. Published on Dec 1, in Land Use Policy 3. Tuihedur Rahman 5 Estimated H-index: 5. Estimated H-index: 1. Abstract In this paper, we seek to better understand the temporal and spatial aspects of climatic stress on local resource production systems and resource-use behaviors by including the perspectives of resource-dependent communities.
Field research was conducted over a nine-month period in the remote north-eastern floodplain communities of Bangladesh, considered one of the most climate-vulnerable, least developed and under-studied regions in the country. This area is heavily dominated by wetland Livelihood sustainability assessment of coffee and cocoa producers in the Amazon region of Ecuador using household types.
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Social capital refers to networks of mutual support that exist within and between households, extended family, and communities, which people can mobilize to access, for example, loans, childcare, food, accommodation and information about employment and opportunities Moser, ; Dersham and Gzirishvili, Some also argue that strong social capital can help communities in mobilizing them to make demands for services and rights to the state Putnam, However, social capital is a valuable and critical resource for resource-poor households, especially during the period of crisis and socio-economic change.
However, while social capital is an important asset for the resource-poor, processes of urbanization and migration may weaken social networks for some groups. According to a World Bank study, community and inter-household mechanisms have been weakened by social and economic heterogeneity in India, and the increased communal violence and social fragmentation can be attributed to loosening social ties, competition for access to scarce resources, and the widening gap between rich and resource-poor Pantoja, This is the process the economic globalisation is promoting in South Asian and other developing countries Rajbhandari, Physical capital Physical capital includes assets such as housing, tools and equipment that people own, rent or use and public infrastructure that they have access to.
Housing is normally one of the most important assets for both rural and urban households as it is used both for shelter and reproductive purposes and for productive or income-generating purposes Moser, In India, pavement dwellers, who do not have secure access to housing cannot access subsidies, government hospitals or fair price shops because they lack an address to register under Guha Sapir, Where housing is used to access credit, it is important to distinguish between those who own their own housing and those who rent.
Squatter settlements include large rental populations who find it harder to access credit. One study of Rajeshwar Nagar, a squatter settlement in Banglore, notes that informal moneylenders from outside the settlement will only lend money to those who own their own houses.
So renters in the settlement rely on pawnbrokers for credit with the result of high levels of indebtedness Benjamin and Amis, In Nepal also, resource-poor households who do not own land or housing can not borrow money from the bank or local moneylenders for agricultural or off-farm income generation activities. Besides being an asset, house is often a key determinant of other assets such as human capital and social capital, as mutual support networks of work through neighbourhood relations and Community-Based Organisations CBOs , membership of which generally rely on secure access to housing and to the locality of housing.
Other physical assets such as jewelry or household goods may be obtained to satisfy cultural norms and basic needs. In addition to these roles these assets can also act as a store of value and be pawned or sold during times of crisis Chambers, Political capital In addition, Baumann and Sinha suggest that the ability to influence political processes which determine decision-making and access is something which men and women can build up and draw on, and thus political capital should be considered as an important capital asset.
It is important to distinguish between those assets, which are being used out of necessity, because they are readily available e. Dependence on income means that one of the most calamitous events faced by resource-poor households is the loss or illness of a major income earner. Where this is impossible, the most common non-labour response is through disposal of household assets or credit, the latter creating a household debt, which further strains, the resources of the family.
A negative circular pattern of ill health leading to indebtedness leading to the loss of assets and further impoverishment can have a devastating impact on households. In the countries of South Asia, the capacity for resource-poor people to make demands on the state is mixed. Some successes of CBOs influencing state actions have been documented. However, the informal or illegal status of many resource-poor households often limits their rights to influence formal political processes.
Financial capital Although credit has been an essential asset for the rural resource-poor or entrepreneurs, many households and individuals are unable to access credit through the formal market, bank or more expensive informal markets. This is the general trend in all countries of South Asia. Thus, while financial capital is one of the most important assets for the rural and urban resource-poor, it is normally far from the reach of the targeted beneficiaries.
One cultural institution in India and Nepal that has traditionally very significant impact on the access of different groups of people to livelihood assets is the construction and division of communities based on caste or ethnicity. It has strongly influenced access of people to education, employment, public services, and property. While there is evidence that some traditional practices based on caste system are gradually changing, there is also still evidence that caste affects access to livelihood assets.
In India and Nepal the capitalist, professional and business class comes overwhelmingly from the so-called higher castes such as Brahmins, Rajputs, Kayasthas and Baniyas- in India; and Brahmins, Chhetris, Marwadis, Baniyas, Newars-in Nepal. In Nepal terai, squatter communities of Musahar, Dusad, Chamar are the groups of people most marginalised from both the development efforts and in having access to assets.
Gender norms can have an important impact on intra-household relations, e. It is to be noted that policy and institutional practices are often shaped by social institutions such as, gender. Other cultural institutions such as the use of assets for traditional investments, such as dowries in India and Nepal and ghewa in Tamang communities in Nepal, also have a major negative impact on livelihood.
The concerned people should change or eliminate all cultural institutions that have negative impact on their livelihoods. Being a very sensitive issue it should be started through the local and concerned groups of the people. Livelihood strategies: These are the planned activities that men and women undertake to build their livelihood. They usually include a range of activities designed to build asset bases and access to goods and services for consumption. Livelihood strategies include coping strategies designed to respond to shocks in the short term, and adaptive strategies designed to improve circumstances in the long term.
The assets and opportunities available to as well as by the choices and preferences of men and women with diverse cultural backgrounds determine livelihood strategies. Livelihood outcomes may therefore lead into either virtuous or vicious cycles. While broadly overlapping in terms of these core principles and this framework, the SL models adopted by different organisations vary in their details.
Both have implications for the composition of the assets i. In addition to defining types of livelihood strategies according to their time frame, and the extent to which are they are viewed as part of a long term plan rather than a temporary response to necessity, attempts have also been made to define livelihood strategies, or components of livelihood strategies, according to the nature of the activities they are involved in. It is argued that policy will be more effective and equitable if it begins with an understanding of household-level strategies, and uses a livelihood systems framework to understand the linkages between smaller units such as households and communities and the larger scale economic social and political processes operating in and on the city Beall and Kanji, Local Initiatives: the Seeds of Change Local civil society initiatives have helped to organize women and marginalised groups of people in South Asia.
Before these efforts, women in the informal sector faced exploitation in the form of low wages and job insecurity HDSA, Most of these organisations have been operating within the framework of social justice, gender equality and sustainable development. Detailed information about the approaches and initiatives of these and thousands of other civil society groups in the region can be obtained from their respective web sites.
The civil society groups in South Asia are working in a geographically limited area or at micro-levels. These local innovations can be rather need to be scaled-up through two basic processes: replication in new locality; and expansion to involve larger group of people. Empowerment and mobilization of the resource-poor and women groups is the pre-requisite for implementing SLAs for rural development in South Asia. Need for organizational change As mentioned earlier, the principles of the SLA include features such as the need o be people-centered, multi-level and holistic.
Therefore, if the bodies involved in development and governance intend to deliver SLAs, there may be a need for organizational change as many institutions are not equipped to operate in this manner. The need for organizational change in rural institutions to deliver SLs already has started in many ways, due to the focus over recent decades on participatory governance and decentralization. Nevertheless, local people and institutions need support for capacity building and social mobilization.
Entry points and collective empowerment The focus of SL on people-centered approaches suggests that specific points of intervention, or sectors that is to be addressed should be determined through consultation with the concerned community groups. In a number of cases, SLA is incorporated into the existing projects or programs that already have a sectoral focus. It has been argued that despite the sectoral entry points of many SL interventions, SL approaches are useful as they can widen the focus and ongoing impacts of sectoral interventions.
Animation and collective empowerment of the marginalised people is an effective entry point for SL intervention in rural settings in Nepal. Long-term interventions and social mobilization The most successful initiatives involve long-term processes that increase the options for the resource-poor and women, local decision making and planning social mobilization is developed, and the exchanges among the civil society groups lead to improved sharing and learning.
Participation of the local people should be ensured throughout the processes of resource identification, capacity building, planning, program implementation, monitoring and impact assessment Rajbhandari, In the countries of South Asia, this could be done through two broad approaches.
One would be to work with overarching rural development programs that could incorporate SL analysis as a methodology. Another approach for linking with existing initiatives would be to identify ongoing sectoral programs to support on the basis of an SL analysis. One important area highlighted by the SL approach, through its focus on the everyday vulnerability faced by individuals and households, is that development activities need to address and safeguard against sources of vulnerability.
This has institutional implications for organisations working in development and disaster mitigation, which are normally seen as distinct areas of activity and dealt with by distinct departments or agencies. In fact, the SL approach highlights the need to build mitigation measures into ongoing development work in order to make them effective in protecting against vulnerability.
This needs at regional levels both a convergence of social principles and a divergence, which may be necessary for ensuring local acceptability and success-an approach, which is united on being empowering to all users, sustainable and sensitive to unequal relations of power such as class, gender, and race.
Environmental sustainability and sustainable agriculture A linked concern for SL approaches in rural areas is the emphasis on the relationship between household livelihood strategies and environmental sustainability. This link is clear in those rural areas, where households are directly dependent on, and often forced to deplete natural resources for their livelihood activities.
A number of NGOs have been engaged in collective empowerment and social mobilization for environment protection, sustainability of ecology, and sustainable livelihood employing the approach of sustainable agriculture and rural development SARD. Integrated animation and bio-intensive farming system or sustainable agriculture along with right-based approach is found effective in the rural settings in Nepal, Pakistan and India Rajbhandari ; Zia and Gadi, ; Shiva, Implementation of SLA linking with the Rights-Based Concept Rights in this context are claims that have been legitimised by social structures and norms.
They include civil and political rights and economic, social and cultural rights. In an ideal view, rights are universal in that they apply to everyone, and are indivisible, i. For development agencies, the concern is not just with what rights people should be entitled to, but also with understanding whether people can claim the provisions to which these rights entitle them, and how the capacity of groups currently excluded from these entitlements can be enhanced.
Sustainable livelihood approach: a critique of theory and practice pdf
This interpretation offers scope for closer interaction with the new architecture of aid and with SL approaches. There is considerable overlap in the founding principles of rights-based and SLAs, and both emphasize the importance of influencing policies, institutions and processes in order to enable people to achieve better access to resources and entitlements.
General Conclusions and Suggestions The first important advantage of the sustainable livelihood approach is that the resource-constrained rural people are at the focal point of the concept, and attempt is made to address the commonly neglected dimensions of their livelihood with their direct engagement. The concept and approach of sustainable livelihood originated in rural contexts, but some studies have shown that it can be effectively applied in urban context in South Asia and other regions as well.
There are a number of areas in which livelihood approaches should have space for operation or intervention.
شناسایی و تحلیل عوامل مؤثر بر معیشت پایدار کشاورزان (موردمطالعه: شهرستان شازند)
Barret, A. Baumann, P. London: Overseas Development Institute. Beall, J. Birmingham, UK: University of Birmingham. Benjamin, S. Bista, S. Chambers, R. London: International Institute for the Environment and Development. IDS Discussion paper Dersham, L.
Related Sustainable Livelihood Approach: A Critique of Theory and Practice
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