Nusair, Accurate spin-dependent electron liquid correlation energies for local spin density calculations: A critical analysis, Can.
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Wang, T. Ziegler, E. Baerends, The calculation of excitation energies based on the relativistic two-component zeroth-order regular approximation and time-dependent density-functional with full use of symmetry , J. Klamt, V. Jonas, A Conductor-like screening model for real solvents: A new approach to the quantitative calculation of salvation phenomenaJ.
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Klamt, Treatment of the outlying charge in continuum salvation models, J. Tenderholt, K. Langner, Cclib: A library for package independent computational chemistry algorithms, J. Dalton Trans. Allen, O. Kennard, D. Watson, L. Brammer, A. Part 1. Bond Lengths in Organic Compounds.
Perkin Trans. Acta Cryst. Balakrishna, Joel T. Mague, Shaikh M.
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Nieland, InorganicaChimicaActa, ,, Bartlett, Simon J. Coles, David B. Davies, Michael B. Batch vs. Continuous Flow Systems Continuous procedures have been playing a significant role in important fields like the oil, plastic, and fine chemical industries, or metal processing for a long time [ 1 ]. Open in a separate window. Figure 1. Batch Microwave Chemistry Microwave MW irradiation is widely used as a heat source in different fields, such as organic, inorganic, and analytical chemistry, finding applications in the medicinal, polymer, and food industries, as well as in the areas of material processing [ 10 , 11 ].
Continuous Flow Microwave Attempts According to a review in the field of MW-assisted material chemistry [ 20 ], continuous processes have been developed for the preparation of carbides, sintering of ceramics, or the continuous treatment of oil-contaminated drill cuttings. Figure 2. Microwave-Assisted Continuous Flow Applications 2. Development of the Continuous Flow Microwave Device Among continuous flow MW-assisted syntheses, there are examples for esterifications [ 27 , 44 , 46 ], acylations [ 27 , 44 , 46 ], multicomponent [ 27 ] and rearrangement reactions [ 27 , 28 , 44 ], couplings [ 27 , 28 , 43 , 44 ], and polycondensations [ 90 ].
Figure 3. Elaboration of the Continuous Flow Transesterification of Dialkyl Phosphites The MW-assisted transesterification of dialkyl phosphites dialkyl H -phosphonates was studied with simple alcohols Scheme 9 under catalyst-free conditions [ 96 ]. Conclusions The recent paradigm shift from batch processes to continuous flow operations has brought about a significant change in organic chemistry, and meant a challenge in organophosphorus chemistry.
Scheme 1. Scheme 2. The reaction of ring phosphinic acids 1 with alkyl halides. Scheme 3.
Angewandte Chemie International Edition in English: Vol 35, No 6
Scheme 4. Scheme 5. Scheme 6. Double Kabachnik—Fields reaction starting from primary amines. Scheme 7. Scheme 8. Scheme 9. Scheme Batch alcoholysis of dialkyl phosphites by diols and aminoalcohols. Continuous flow MW system for the alcoholysis of dialkyl phosphites. Author Contributions G. Conflicts of Interest The authors declare no conflict of interest.
References 1. Plutschack M.
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Glasnov T. Continuous-Flow Chemistry in the Research Laboratory. Springer International Publishing; Basel, Switzerland: Vaccaro L. Sustainable Flow Chemistry: Methods and Applications. Wiley; Weinheim, Germany: Movsisyan M. Taming hazardous chemistry by continuous flow technology. Bakeev K. May S. Flow Chem. Strying P. From discovery to production: Scale-out of continuous flow meso reactors.
Beilstein J. Pashkova A. Cravotto G. Microwave Chemistry. De Gruyter; Berlin, Germany: Horikoshi S. Microwave Chemical and Materials Processing. Springer; Singapore: In: Keglevich G. Milestones in Microwave Chemistry.
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