Vose, D. Wachsmuth, K. Marcel Dekker, New York. Food Prot. Lammerding, A. Kasuga, F. In press.
Escherichia coli O157:H7 in ground beef : review of a draft risk assessment
Food and Drug Administration. Buchanan, R. Dennis, S. Levine, M. Sprong, R. PubMed Google Scholar. Coleman, M. President's Council on Food Safety. Food Safety and Inspection Service. Notermans, S. Food Microbiol. Rosenquist, H. Cassin, M. RIVM, Bilthoven. Report Gallagher, D. Bemrah, N. Whiting, R. Alban, L. Lindqvist, R. Schroeder, C. The sensitivity analysis gave reasonable confidence in the model results Fig 4. For specific meat products, however, the effect of parameter value change on EEC exposure could be large.
EEC concentrations for meat from other animals than chicken and cross-contamination were the parameters with the largest effect on model output. EEC concentrations for meat from other animals than chicken was a source of uncertainty as it was based on E. Future research should investigate EEC concentrations on meat from other food animals than chicken. The cross-contamination parameter value was less uncertain, being based on the results of a literature review see 2.
The objective of the Dutch National Food Consumption Surveys was to establish data on food and nutrient intake and was not created for the microbiological working field. The design used two 24h time frames, so that the consumption data for rarely consumed but possibly important products were relatively uncertain e.
Review of the USDA E. coli O157:H7 Farm-to-Table Process Risk Assessment
Important data on storage and heating were not considered. Chardon and Swart [ 31 ] partly filled these data gaps, but more extensive data are needed. It was assumed that food was heated according to the recommendations in a cookbook [ 37 ]. Further, conflicting results were found in the literature on the inactivating effect of heating D ref , see e.
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Model extensions in the future are possible and desirable, related to the very large diversity of meat products and ways of consumer storage and preparation. Suggestions are listed below. To date it is unknown if exposure to EEC through the consumption of meat leads to carriage of EEC and whether this eventually results in a significant health burden in humans. It should be noted that the estimated number of EEC ingested per portion was low. The mean number of EEC on a contaminated portion of meat at the moment of consumption was estimated to be 6. As yet, a modelling framework to calculate the public health risk of antimicrobial resistance is not available.
The standard QMRA chain models for pathogenic microorganisms need to be adjusted in order to model EEC carrier prevalence and health burden.
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The exposure model used here would have to be extended with a dose-response relationship for EEC-carriership and in addition would have to include:. Dynamic models e. They might prove an alternative.
Next, EEC carriership must be linked to the health burden of relevant diseases, such as urinary tract infections UTIs [ 3 ], by a mathematical model. The EEC-related health burden e. Research into the following other reservoirs or transmission routes for EEC has been done: retail vegetables [ 77 ], swimming in recreational water [ 78 ], direct contact with broilers [ 1 ] and human-to-human transmission [ 79 ].
This did not lead to human EEC exposure estimates that could be compared with exposure via meat consumption, because quantitative data were scarce [ 4 ] and the intensity of human exposure was seldom investigated. From this perspective, individual risk management would imply avoiding raw meat products as these clearly resulted in the highest exposure per portion Table 8. For the authorities, exposure at population level per food animal or specific meat product is more important: reduction of this exposure can potentially reduce the public health risk.
Possible interventions could include:. One way of reducing the EEC prevalence in food animals is to decrease the amount of antimicrobials used in veterinary medicine. In , resistance rates of E. A possible further change in prevalences of resistance in livestock due to alterations in consumption patterns of antimicrobials will affect model output. The main part of exposure was due to 1 raw beef products filet americain, ossenworst via the product itself and 2 chicken fillet via cross-contamination Table 8 , Figs 2 and 3.
In the Netherlands, chicken fillet is sold with a warning label that stresses the danger of cross-contamination and undercooking in relation to bacteria.
A label that warns for the microbiological risk of raw beef products which includes STEC O [ 80 ] could be considered, next to the less realistic option of forbidding these products. In conclusion, consumption of beef products led to a higher EEC exposure than chicken products, where filet americain and chicken fillet were the specific products with the highest exposure.
Pork and veal products accounted for only 4. Future work will focus on investigating and modelling the relationship between EEC exposure and public health risk. The authors would like to thank Rob de Jonge for providing food microbiology expertise and Caroline van Rossum and Marja Beukers for providing Food Consumption Survey expertise.
Conceptualization: EE. Funding acquisition: ED. Methodology: EE JS. Software: EE. Browse Subject Areas?ikepulysehov.tk
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Click through the PLOS taxonomy to find articles in your field. Data Availability: All relevant data are within the paper. The Model 2.
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